There are several financial reports that will provide insight into the past, present, and future financial state of the business. As a business owner, it is critical to have an annual report of this financial data as it will allow you to more effectively run your company, enable you to better analyze operations, and help guide business decisions.
Of all the financial reports, below are five of the most essential accounting reports every business owner should be reviewing on a regular and annual basis to gain a better understanding of the company’s financial performance.
1. Balance Sheet
The Balance Sheet is a financial statement summarizing a company’s total assets (current, non-current and intangible assets), liabilities (financial obligations), and shareholders’ equity (investments and retained earnings) at a specific point in time, usually at the end of an accounting period. It provides a snapshot of a company’s financial position, including the economic resources the company owns, owes, and the sources of financing for those resources.
The Balance Sheet can be used to identify trends and make more informed financial accounting decisions. It is also important to lenders, as they will use it to determine a company’s creditworthiness.
2. Income Statement
The Income Statement is sometimes referred to as the Profit and Loss Statement (P&L), Statement of Operations, or Statement of Income. The Income Statement summarizes the total revenues and expenses incurred by the business, showing the profitability (net income or net loss) over a specified period of time, usually a month, quarter or year.
The Income Statement is used by internal stakeholders (such as the management team and board of directors) as well as external stakeholders (such as investors and creditors) to evaluate profitability and help assess the level of risk for an investor or creditor. In order to have a viable and valuable company, revenues must exceed expenses.
3. Cash Flow Statement
The Cash Flow Statement summarizes all cash inflows and cash outflows of a business over a period of time. This statement is different from the Balance Sheet and Income Statement because it only takes into account cash money activity; it does not account for non-cash activity such as sales or purchases on credit or depreciation.
The Cash Flow Statement is presented with three sections: operating, financing and investing activities, and indicates which areas of the business are generating and using the most cash. One of the best uses for the Cash Flow Statement is to estimate future cash flow which will assist with budgeting and decision making.
The Cash Flow Statement, Balance Sheet and Income Statement together make up the standard financial statement package. These financial statements should be prepared by your accounting team on a monthly basis after the month-end close procedures have been performed. They can (and should) be used to calculate key performance indicators and monitor them over time.
4. Accounts Receivable Aging Report
The Accounts Receivable (A/R) Aging Report categorizes outstanding accounts receivable into groups based on the due date of the invoice, typically current, as well as 1-30, 31-60, 61-90 and >90 days overdue.
A common source of cash flow problems (especially for small and mid-size businesses) is poorly managed accounts receivable. The more cash you have tied up in receivables due to slow-paying customers and delinquent accounts, the less cash you have available for running your business. Reviewing the A/R Aging report will help companies proactively manage the receivable collections process immediately upon invoicing and create more accountability for the person responsible for collections.
The A/R Aging Report can be generated out of most accounting systems and can be reviewed at any time. If collecting on accounts receivable is an issue for your business, a weekly review of this report may be necessary to assist in identifying past due accounts. Once these accounts are identified, collection procedures can be initiated to improve business cash flows.
5. Budget vs Actual
As the name suggests, this report is a comparison of actual results, primarily from the Income Statement, against the budgeted amounts that were projected at the beginning of the period. This report will allow the reader to assess how closely a company’s spending and revenue generation meets the financial forecasting projections included in the budget. It can help identify areas that were over and under budget, indicating the ability to hire additional employees or bringing attention to a gross profit margin not in line with financial reporting expectations, for example.
The Budget vs. Actual Report should be prepared on a monthly basis and reviewed with the financial statements to determine if any areas of the business are not meeting expectations and should be investigated further.
We Can Help
Our highly experienced accountants can complement your internal accounting employees, or act as your entire accounting department (CFO to staff accountant) on an ongoing basis. We will consistently provide you with timely and accurate financials and reports (like the ones mentioned above) on a monthly basis, as well as the actionable financial analysis you need to effectively run your company, analyze operations, and guide business decisions. If your business needs additional accounting support, contact us today to schedule a free consultation.